Fluorescein Angiography (FA)

This test is a photographic study that helps to detect any abnormalities of ocular blood vessels. The study involves injecting a dye (fluorescein) into a vein of the arm, within seconds the dye travels to the blood vessels inside the eye. Photographs are then taken to document any fluid leakage from damaged blood vessels as the dye circulates through the eye. Fluorescein angiography is used to diagnose and monitor progression of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, vein occlusions, and macular degeneration. The eye is dilated for this test. Your eyes may be sensitive to light and your vision may be blurry due to the dilating drops and the flash photography. After the fluorescein dye is injected, your skin may turn yellowish for several hours, and your urine may turn orange or yellow for up to 24 hours.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

This test is a computerized ophthalmic imaging study that measures the thickness of the retina in cross-section. After your pupils are dilated, you will be asked to sit at the OCT machine with your chin on a chin rest and stare at a blinking light. Light waves from the machine rapidly scan across your retina and produce an image. This test is used to detect swelling or other structural defects in conditions such as macular degeneration, macular hole, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, or epiretinal membrane.

Fundus Photography (Colors)

This test is a photographic study of the back of the eye (the fundus) that helps to document the status of the retina, optic nerve, macula, blood vessels, and vitreous. Fundus photography is used to document the progression of eye diseases such as macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. No dye is required but the eye is usually dilated.

Ultrasonography (B-Scan)

This is a test that is used to produce images of the inner area of the eye using sound waves. Your eye may be anesthetized with numbing drops and then the ultrasound wand is gently placed on your eyelid. Sound waves emitted from the wand bounce off of structures within and behind the eye and create an image. The test helps to detect tumors or retinal detachments in the eye. Ultrasound may be used to evaluate the extent and location of a retinal detachment or to determine the borders and height of intraocular tumors or lesions. It is also useful when blood blocks the view into the eye.

Electroretinography/Electrooculography (ERG/EOG)

The ERG records the retina’s electrical response to light stimulation. The test measures the electrical response of the rods and cones, the visual cells in the retina. The ERG may be useful in the evaluation of hereditary and acquired retinal disorders. The EOG is used to assess the function of the pigment epithelium in the macula.

Intravitreal Injection of Drug Therapy (Avastin, Eylea, Jetrea, Kenalog, Lucentis, Macugen, Ozurdex, Triesence)

This procedure is usually performed in an office setting. After prepping the eye with anesthetic drops and antibiotic drops, a needle is used to inject medication directly into the vitreous, which is the fluid in the center cavity of the eyeball.

The drugs administered in this type of procedure help treat retinal disorders and/or diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions or macular edema.

Agron/Krypton Laser (Grid, Focal, and PRP Laser)

These procedures are usually performed in an office setting. A highly focused beam of light (laser) is directed towards specific areas of the eye and absorbed by the tissue. The laser lessens leaking from blood vessels or creates scar tissue to seal off a tear in the retina. Anesthetic drops or anesthetic injections are used to numb the eye prior to the laser. Laser procedures treat various types of retinal disorders and/or diseases including but not limited to diabetic retinopathy, choroidal neovascular membranes, lattice degeneration, retinal tears, or macular edema. Tests such as Fluorescein Angiography, Fundus Photography or Optical Coherence Tomography may be required first to pinpoint the areas in the eye to target with the laser.


This procedure is usually performed in the office setting. Typically a cold probe is used to treat retinal tears. Anesthetic drops are usually used to numb the eye prior to the procedure

PhotoDynamic Laser Therapy with Visudyne (PDT Laser)

This laser treatment involves two steps. The first consists of injection of a drug, Visudyne, into the arm. Visudyne, also known as verteporfin, is a light-activated, or photodynamic, drug that is injected into the bloodstream and travels to the abnormal vessels in the eye. It is then activated by a low-energy laser, which produces a reaction that closes abnormal vessels. The drug used in this procedure causes the skin and eyes to be temporarily sensitive to light, thus protective clothing (such as long sleeves, hats, sunglasses, etc.), must be worn for five days after treatment.

This procedure is used to treat various types of retina disorders and/or diseases including but not limited to macular degeneration, histoplasmosis, myopic degeneration, central serous retinopathy, or macular edema. The eye does have to be dilated.